1. Censors - Officials who appointed candidates to the Senate and oversaw the moral conduct of all citizens.
2. Legionaries - Citizens who made up the major unit of the Roman army.
3. Forum - Center of all government business.
4. Republic - Government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
5. Praetors - Officials who oversaw the Roman legal system.
1. Carthage, a powerful city on the north African coast, was a great commerical power that Rome feared would control the Mediterranean.
2. Historians call the conflicts between Carthage and Rome the Punic Wars
3. Spartacus , a Roman slave, led a revolt in 73 B.C. in which more than 70,000 slaves took part.
4. Trade within Rome's empire created a class of business people and landowners called equities.
5. After losing the First Punic War, Carthage was forced to give up Sicily.
1. Julius Caesar - "I led my troops across the Rubicon and declared war on the Republic."
2. Triumvirate - "I am a political alliance that means "rule of three."
3. The Grachhi - "We were brothers who attempted to save the Roman Republic through reforms."
4. Five Good Emporers - "We ruled for almost a hundred years and spent much time fortifying the provinces and defending the empire against invaders."
5. Augustus - "I called myself 'first citizen' and was the first emperor of Rome."
1. The Pax Romana was one of the longest periods of peace and stability the world has ever known.
2. The Code of 12 tables, or Roman laws, changed to help unify the empire.
3. Early Roman gods included, lares, or ancestral spirits, and Vesta, the spirit who guarded the fire and hearth
4. In one type of Roman entertainment, trained fighters—often slaves—called Gladiators fought wild beasts and other men in front of huge crowds.
5. Galen wrote several medical volumes that summarized all of the medical knowledge of his day.
1. The rise of Christianity and its gradual spread across the empire changed the culture of the Romans.
2. The Roman governor Pontius Pilate tried Jesus for being an enemy of the state.
3. The Council of Nicaea proclaimed the existence of the Trinity—three persons, or forms, in one God.
4. The Roman emperor Constantine declared his support for Christianity in A.D. 312.
5. In the late Roman empire, Christian church councils collected and spread Chrisitan beliefs which helped establish Christianity as a major religion and stabilized the church.
1. Inflation , a rise in prices caused by a decrease in the value of money, became so severe that people stopped using money.
2. In AD 324 Constantine became the sole emperor again and built a beautiful capital city in the East.
3. The Vandals, a Germanic tribe, proved to be a serious threat and sacked Rome around A.D. 455.
4. The Hun , nomadic people from central and southwestern Asia, posed an ever-growing threat to Rome in the late empire.
5. Growing divisions between the rich and the poor, a loss of values, and a loss of patriotism are social explanations of why the empire fell.